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HDTV$English Syntax And&.Argumentation Exercises Answe.r

 
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MessagePosté le: Ven 20 Mai - 12:16 (2016)    Sujet du message: HDTV$English Syntax And&.Argumentation Exercises Answe.r Répondre en citant




English Syntax And Argumentation Exercises Answer > urlin.us/2bhle





Of,,,course,,,,wecould,,,keep,,,on,,,extending,,,our,,,notional,,,denition,,,in,,,such,,,a,,,way,,,that,,,eventuallyall,,,these,,,words,,,would,,,be,,,incorporated,,,into,,,the,,,class,,,of,,,nounsSorry!,,,We,,,could,,,not,,,find,,,what,,,you,,,were,,,looking,,,for,,,Sad,,,Don't,,,worry,,,,we,,,will,,,help,,,you,,,get,,,to,,,the,,,right,,,placeOur,,,initial,,,denition,,,of,,,the,,,notion,,,Subject,,,turns,,,out,,,to,,,be,,,problematic,,,inanother,,,respect:,,,in,,,addition,,,to,,,the,,,referent,,,of,,,a,,,Subject,,,sometimes,,,not,,,per-forming,,,any,,,kind,,,of,,,action,,,,Subjects,,,can,,,be,,,elements,,,that,,,are,,,meaningless,and,,,cannot,,,therefore,,,be,,,said,,,to,,,tell,,,us,,,what,,,the,,,sentences,,,of,,,which,,,they,,,arethe,,,Subject,,,are,,,aboutThismeans,,that,,they,,dene,,the,,notion,,of,,Subject,,by,,referring,,to,,syntactic,,posi-tions,,and,,environments,,in,,sentences,,,rather,,than,,to,,rather,,vague,,semanticnotions,(Modern,linguistics,series),Includes,bibliographical,references,and,indexa,class,of,words,that,isconstantly,enlarged,as,time,goes,by,,and,a,closed,class,,i.eConsider,,,thesentence,,,below:(11),,,Our,,,vicar,,,likes,,,fast,,,cars.If,,,we,,,want,,,to,,,set,,,about,,,analysing,,,the,,,structure,,,of,,,this,,,sentence,,,,we,,,can,,,ofcourse,,,divide,,,it,,,up,,,into,,,words,,,,in,,,the,,,way,,,we,,,did,,,in,,,(8),,,,as,,,follows:(12),,,Our,,,,,,vicar,,,,,,likes,,,,,,fast,,,,,,carsBut,,,again,,,,you,,,will,,,agree,,,,this,,,is,,,of,,,limited,,,interest,,,for,,,the,,,same,,,reason,,,asthat,,,given,,,above:,,,an,,,analysis,,,into,,,strings,,,of,,,individual,,,words,,,leaves,,,therelationships,,,between,,,words,,,completely,,,unaccounted,,,for.ExerciseCan,,,you,,,think,,,of,,,a,,,dierent,,,way,,,of,,,analysing,,,this,,,sentence,,,into,,,subpartswhich,,,accounts,,,for,,,our,,,intuition,,,that,,,certain,,,words,,,belong,,,together?Intuitively,,,the,,,words,,,our,,,and,,,vicar,,,belong,,,together,,,,as,,,do,,,fast,,,and,,,carsTheword,,,likes,,,seems,,,to,,,stand,,,aloneB.AOne,,,of,,,its,,,uses,,,is,,,to,,,seek,,,the,,,hearersconrmation,,,of,,,what,,,is,,,being,,,statednotional),,,and,,,morphological,,,criteria,,,are,,,inadequate,,,,thenit,,,seems,,,that,,,what,,,we,,,have,,,left,,,are,,,distributional,,,criteriaThis,,agreement,,is,,signalled,,by,,the,,-s,,ending,,that,,is,,added,,to,,the,,verb.In,,the,,present,,tense,,,English,,,unlike,,some,,of,,the,,worlds,,other,,languages,really,,only,,has,,one,,ending,,for,,most,,verbs,,,and,,that,,is,,the,,third,,personsingular,,ending,,-sthey,,,can,,,be,,,preceded,,,by,,,words,,,such,,,asvery,,,,extremely,,,,less,,,,etcWe,,,can,,,nowdene,,,the,,,Subject,,,of,,,a,,,sentence,,,as,,,the,,,constituent,,,that,,,on,,,the,,,one,,,hand,,,tells,,,uswho,,,performs,,,the,,,action,,,denoted,,,by,,,the,,,verb,,,(i.eIn,,,English,,,some,,,adjectives,,,follow,,,the,,,noun,,,theymodify,,,,as,,,in,,,(15),,,below:(15),,,The,,,person,,,responsible,,,will,,,be,,,punishedOne,way,in,which,we,can,also,show,that,the,string,the,President,isa,unit,is,by,replacing,it,with,he:(10),[He],,[blushed]The,subdivision,in,(9),makes,good,sense,from,the,point,of,view,of,meaningtoo:,the,word-group,the,President,has,a,specic,function,in,that,it,refers,(in,aparticular,context,of,utterance),to,an,individual,whose,job,is,Head,of,State.Similarly,,the,word,blushed,has,a,clear,function,in,that,it,tells,us,whathappened,to,the,Presidentb,Jake,walked.Saying,that,in,each,case,the,verb,can,function,both,transitively,and,intrans-itively,amounts,to,saying,that,we,have,two,dierent,verbs,move,and,twodierent,verbs,walk(cfWe,,,can,,,test,,,to,,,see,,,if,,,a,,,particular,,,sentence,,,contains,,,an,,,Adjunct,,,byasking,,,how?,,,,when?,,,,where?,,,or,,,why?,,,For,,,example,,,,if,,,we,,,want,,,to,,,know,,,what,,,isthe,,,Adjunct,,,in,,,(85),,,we,,,ask,,,how,,,did,,,the,,,bus,,,stop?Furthermore,,if,wecompare,(2),and,(3),we,see,that,not,only,must,ate,precede,a,doughnut,,butwe,must,also,ensure,that,the,two,elements,the,and,a,precede,President,and,3Apart,,,from,,,the,,,spoken,,,medium,language,,,also,,,exists,,,in,,,written,,,formFirst,,of,,all,,,one,,ofthe,,principal,,concerns,,of,,syntax,,is,,the,,order,,of,,wordsThe,,general,,syntactic,,framework,,I,,have,,adopted,,isinspired,,by,,the,,theory,,of,,language,,developed,,by,,the,,American,,linguistand,,philosopher,,Noam,,ChomskyIn,,the,,sentences,,below,,the,,IOs,,have,,been,,italicised:(61),,We,,gave,,the,,boys,,the,,CDs.(62),,The,,publisher,,sent,,her,,a,,review,,copy,,of,,the,,book.(63),,She,,lent,,the,,student,,a,,diskette.(64),,My,,father,,always,,told,,us,,stories.When,,we,,discussed,,Subjects,,and,,Direct,,Objects,,in,,the,,previous,,sections,,wesaw,,that,,Subjects,,typically,,have,,the,,role,,of,,Agent,,,and,,that,,Direct,,Objectstypically,,have,,the,,role,,of,,Patient/UndergoerThe,,,examples,,,we,,,have,,,looked,,,at,,,so,,,far,,,make,,,clear,,,that,,,syntax,,,deals,,,withthe,,,way,,,in,,,which,,,we,,,can,,,carve,,,up,,,sentences,,,into,,,smaller,,,constituent,,,partswhich,,,consist,,,of,,,single,,,words,,,or,,,of,,,larger,,,units,,,of,,,two,,,or,,,more,,,words,,,,andthe,,,way,,,in,,,which,,,these,,,units,,,can,,,be,,,combined,,,and/or,,,rearrangedFunction(58)a,,That,,silly,,fool,,broke,,the,,teapotAs,you,can,see,from,the,examples,in,(11),,Noun,Phrases,can,become,verylong,,indenitely,long,in,fact,,if,we,keep,adding,elementsSo,,,far,,,we,,,have,,,seen,,,that,,,Direct,,,Objects,,,are,,,constituents,,,that,,,are,,,closelyrelated,,,to,,,the,,,verb,,,that,,,precedes,,,themWe,,,will,,,make,,,use,,,of,,,the,,,following,,,word,,,classes:noundetermineradjectiveverbprepositionadverbconjunctioninterjectionThe,,,word,,,classes,,,are,,,notions,,,of,,,form,,,,as,,,opposed,,,to,,,the,,,functional,,,notionswe,,,looked,,,at,,,in,,,the,,,preceding,,,chapterThe,,-s,,ending,,signals,,that,,the,,verb,,is,,in,,the,,present,,tense,,,and,,weWe,,end,,up,,with,,(13):(13),,[Our,,vicar],,,,[likes],,,,[fast,,cars]We,,saw,,thatsentences,,can,,be,,analysed,,into,,subparts,,which,,we,,referred,,to,,as,,constituents.In,,this,,chapter,,we,,will,,look,,at,,how,,these,,constituents,,function,,in,,thesentences,,of,,which,,they,,are,,a,,part.2.1,,Subject,,and,,PredicateConsider,,again,,the,,pair,,of,,sentences,,below,,,which,,we,,rst,,came,,across,,inChapter,,1Sad1),,The,,cat,,devoured,,the,,rat.(2),,The,,rat,,devoured,,the,,cat.The,,structure,,of,,these,,sentences,,can,,be,,represented,,as,,in,,(3),,and,,(4),,belowusing,,brackets:(3),,[The,,cat],,[devoured,,[the,,rat]](4),,[The,,rat],,[devoured,,[the,,cat]]As,,we,,have,,already,,seen,,,these,,sentences,,contain,,exactly,,the,,same,,words,,,butdier,,quite,,radically,,in,,meaningConsider,,,the,,,sentence,,,in,,,(i):,,,(i),,,In,,,August,,,we,,,always,,,go,,,to,,,FranceFurthermore,,,,we,,,will,,,refer,,,to,,,groups,,,of,,,words,,,such,,,as,,,thecat,,,,that,,,stupid,,,waiter,,,,the,,,girl,,,with,,,the,,,red,,,hair,,,etcHowever,,not,all,reorderings,lead,to,a,dierence,in,meaning 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